In order to satisfy the demand for rubber in the country in the 1920s, the main task was to grow a well-preserved rubber plant in front of the All-Union Research and Development Institute of Plantation in St. Petersburg. The execution of this work is entrusted to the academician N.I. Because the natural conditions of the Southwestern Kopetdag coincide with the growing conditions of the Mexican algae plant, a rubberpromhoz-5 production association is being formed in the arid subtropical conditions of Garrygala district.
Here, the issue of growing, cultivating and breeding algae is discussed. The history of the center is related to the development and cultivation of algae in the district. Thus, the Magtymguly Scientific and Production Experimental Center was established in 1929 under the name of the Turkmenistan Experimental Station of the Leningrad Plant Research Institute as a research institution for the study of hereditary complexes of plants located in the arid subtropical conditions of the South-Western Kopetdag. Once the artificial rubber begins to be produced, the cultivation of the algae plant is removed from the spotlight.
From 1930 to 2009, the center was tasked with collecting, preserving, studying and introducing fruit and subtropical plants growing in the foothills of the South and West Kopetdag and putting them into good production. The southwestern Kopetdag is characterized by its unique flora, natural conditions, the Western Mediterranean and the humid, humid, Caspian zone of the Iranian state. During the past period, about 5,000 (five thousand) varieties of 15 (fifteen) varieties of orchards and subtropical orchards have been imported and tested. Today, the center has a gene pool of 8 subtropical garden plants, of which: pomegranate-860, fig-92, almond-37, pistachio-43, olive-101, end-59, date-91, grapes-419, from seed orchards: Apples-137, brain-34, and pear-34 are collected and stored in the center, the largest in the world. In the past, 4 varieties of dates, 8 grapes, 1 almond, 2 soft pomegranates have been created and put into production by the center, scientists. In addition, as a result of the study of plant orchards, varieties of pistachio-8, plum-17, peach-13, cumin-15, cherry-15, pear-5, and brain-6 were selected and tested on the test sites. , introduced into production. Following the dissolution of the former Soviet republics, the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan was established on the basis of the Resolution of the President of Turkmenistan No. 10458 of June 12, 2009 “On the Issues of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan”. Magtymguly Scientific and Production Experimental Center was included in the Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan on September 1, 2009. Over a period of time, the orchards of orchards have been neglected. For those reasons, the level of research at the center has been declining. Conservation of plant breeding complexes has deteriorated. As a result of the prudent decisions of the President, on the basis of Resolution 1087 of January 29, 2019, the Magtymguly Research and Production Experimental Center was handed over to the S. Niyazov Turkmen Agricultural University and since then, all work has been reorganized. In the past, several, during the period, went on expeditions and were enriched by importing various types of orchards from the lands. The center covers an area of 734 hectares, of which 123 hectares are suitable for irrigated agriculture, with a total area of 19.5 hectares of various fruit and subtropical orchards and a variety of grapes. Its main purpose is to collect, store, study and use new breeds of world hereditary stocks, to create and use varieties, to study local plant species and to prepare suitable seedlings for their introduction into production. It is an important task of the center to collect the breeding stocks of the world plants and their wild species for selection and effective use in their work for the creation of subtropical, variegated, shady and ornamental orchards of local fruit, suitable for the climatic conditions of Turkmenistan. The work of collecting local and foreign selection varieties across the country is carried out with the participation of scientists from the center. As a result of their work, wild and semi-wild, orchards and orchards of native orchards and grapes are being developed as a result of their work, and their extinct varieties are being carried out by conducting cleaning in the nursery unit of the center. The main objectives of the center are:
- сarrying out comprehensive research on the detection and conservation of wild relatives of cultural plants, especially in the mountains and shrubs of Turkmenistan, in their collected centers;
- collection and scientific examination of the gene pool of fruit, subtropical, nut-bearing plants, grapes and other scientifically and practically useful plants;
- arranging long-term storage of live, gene pool collections collected from the world flora; use them for genetic and biodiversity-based selection for current and future selection based on research; developing methods and techniques for storing those works and collections;
- comprehensive study of the collected garden collections, participation in the creation of new varieties of cultural plants by selecting valuable genetic resources for production, using them in selection centers;
- to send seeds, twigs, seedlings of garden collections to scientific institutions in Turkmenistan for their selection for use in selection work for their introduction into production;
- reproduction of selected and zoned varieties, assistance to the relevant authorities for their cultivation;
- selection and introduction of productive varieties and varieties of subtropical, southern fruit orchards and grapes and other technical plants;
- Quarantine of foreign plants, seeds, shoots, seedlings from abroad, study them comprehensively and submit them to the relevant authorities;
- to organize and cooperate with ministries, agencies, public, private and public sector organizations in the implementation of multifaceted scientific programs.
- for arid conditions, develops advanced techniques for reproduction and cultivation of high-purification, recreational and beauty (aesthetic) tree and flower and ornamental plants.